TIME VS ENERGY
Mr. Abhijit Patil,
C/o LIC of India, Shahada city, Dist: Nandurbar, Maharastra State, India. Pin: 425 409.
E-Mail Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Physics says that information regarding flow of water travel in water through "pressure waves" with speed equal to speed of sound in water. This Article aims to prove that this is not true.
When we open valve of garden hose, with the hose full of water, water flows out. Physics says that this information regarding flow of water travels back with speed of sound, through pressure waves, and reaches to water level in reservoir. Only after that, water level comes down. I am giving below my experiment which intends to explain that, if this is true i.e. if there is really speed limit, then we can "use" it and "create free potential energy". Obviously, this is against law of conservation of energy which states that "energy can neither be created nor destroyed".
One thing to be remembered in this experiment is that I am NOT arguing about speed of sound in water. I perfectly agree with speed of sound and the way in which sound waves travel in water.
Consider a circular water reservoir of radius 1000 meter and depth 10 meter fully filled with water. Pipe of cross sectional radius 3 centimeter is attached to bottom of reservoir. Let length of this pipe be 3 million km and arranged in horizontal, spiral structure on ground so that water reservoir is near our left hand and open end "B" of pipe, with valve, is near our right hand touched to ground. (End "A" at left hand is attached to bottom of water reservoir and end "B" is near our right hand). The entire horizontal 3 million Km long pipe on ground is full of water.
Let us open the valve at end "B" so that, due to pressure difference, water begins to flow out of end "B" on ground with speed 10 m/s(for example only. In fact, if pipe is not connected at end "A", according to equations speed of water will be 14 m/s. But we are considering friction of water with pipe. Hence speed of water will decrease. Reader should note that we are not going to change length of pipe in our experiment. So friction will be constant throughout experiment). According to Physics, this "information" regarding flow of water from end "B" will travel back across the full length of pipe i.e. 3 million Km with speed of sound. Speed of sound in water is 1482 m/s. So it will take about 2,024,291 seconds i.e. 23 days 10 hours 18 minutes and 11 seconds to reach this "information" to water level in reservoir and only after that water level in reservoir will come down. After such a long time, there will be steady, uniform flow of water in pipe.
Now there is steady flow of water in pipe. According to equation of continuity, as cross sectional area of pipe throughout 3 million Km is uniform, speed and volume of water entering the pipe from reservoir at end "A" is exactly equal to speed and volume of water leaving the pipe at end "B". Let us lift the last 100 meter segment of hose pipe at end "B" straight up in vertical direction pointing towards sky. Remember, we are lifting only last 100 meter segment of pipe. NOT ENTIRE PIPE. Now height of water column in reservoir is 10 meter and at end "B", in vertical hose pipe is 100 meter.
Obviously, water pressure in 100 meter vertical pipe is greater than that in reservoir. So to maintain equilibrium, water should flow from end "B" to end "A" i.e. reservoir. But problem is that how the water in reservoir will come to "know" that we have changed situation at end "B" and water pressure at end "B" is greater so that it should stop flow of water towards end "B" and allow water from vertical pipe i.e. end "B" to flow towards reservoir to maintain equilibrium. Because established knowledge of physics says that this "information" regarding change in pressure at end "B" will travel back towards reservoir with speed equal to speed of sound in water. So it will take 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes and 11 seconds for this "information" to reach to water reservoir. As water in reservoir has no "information" what we have done at end "B" during this time, it will continue to flow as if nothing is happened!. According to equation of continuity, same volume of water which left reservoir will continue to flow through hose pipe at end "B" 90 meter above level of water in reservoir! And it will continue to flow for 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes and 11 seconds!
Please note, during these 23 days and 10 hours, end "B" is at 90 meter higher level than water level in reservoir. But still, due to extremely slow speed of "information transfer" regarding change in situation i.e. water pressure at end "B", Water in reservoir simply don't "know" that water pressure at end "B" is changed and water flow is directed in vertical direction! Hence water will continue to flow at height 90 meter above the water level in reservoir without any energy! This defies gravity. And we can calculate the tremendous amount of water which will flow at higher level during these 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes and 11 seconds(57206 cubic meter, in our experiment. We can increase it by increasing cross sectional area of hose pipe).
Can it really happen?
We know, only one answer: YES or NO.
(1) If YES, then in this way, we can lift water from oceans to higher level in dams without spending any energy at all. And we can use it in hydroelectric power plants to generate power. Better to shut down all the thermal and nuclear power plants on earth We don't need them. Because we will have never ending source of "free energy". This is completely against law of conservation of energy and totally illogical, inconceivable. I DON'T agree with this result.
(2) If NO, then it means flow of water stopped at exactly same moment when we lifted hose pipe above level of water in reservoir. In another word, information regarding change in situation at end "B" reached to water level in reservoir at exactly same moment!.
If we say that YES! The water will continue to flow 90 meter above level of water in reservoir! That is because just before we changed situation at end "B", the water in horizontal pipe all over 3 million km length of pipe has gained momentum. And this momentum will supply energy to water to enable it to flow 90 meter above the water level in reservoir for 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes and 11 seconds! We may think that no law is violated. But we ignores completely that at the end of 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes, 11 seconds, we have tremendous amount of water at height 100 meter which was initially at 10 meter only and we have spent negligible energy.
In reality, momentum of water can never be so large to enable it to flow above water level in reservoir. In daily life, we have seen that when the opening end of pipe is at the bottom or below the bottom of reservoir in our homes, water comes out with tremendous speed(depending upon volume and height of water column in reservoir). So we may think that with such speed it can easily flow "above" water level in reservoir. But NO. It does not happen. Reader should also concentrate on example of Roller Coaster. In Roller Coaster, we come down towards earth with enormous speed due to gravity(depending upon height). But that speed can never throw us "above" the point from where we begin to come down. Most simple example is of pendulum. Potential energy of any body must be exactly equal to kinetic energy and at any point of time PE + KE must be constant.
The gravitational potential energy associated with particle-earth system depends only on vertical position or height of the particle. Equation of potential energy is PE = mgh. Let here mass of water flown at 100 meter height be "m" Kg. So reader should note that when the water was in reservoir, at 10 meter height, its PE was 10mg and after 23 days 10 hours, when it is at 100 meter height, its PE will be 100mg. Hence it has gained 90mg PE. And we have spent negligible energy to lift the pipe at end "B" in few seconds. I request reader to concentrate on this argument. Where from that "extra" 90mg came? We can use this "extra" PE to create "extra" power in hydroelectric power plants.
Please note that, I have given 100 meter
height for example only. We can increase the height to extent we want.
And we can "create" tremendous, tremendous "free" potential energy.
Reader might say that if we increase height, for example from 100 meter
to 1000 meter, there will be high pressure in vertical pipe near ground(97,80,400
Pa) compared to that in reservoir(97804 Pa). Yes, certainly there will
be. But BASIC question I am asking, how water in reservoir will come to
know about this pressure? Why should it stop flow if according to physics,
it will realise about situation at end "B" only after 20,24,291 seconds?
And if it does not stop flow, where the water which is flowing in pipe
We should consider the situation when these pressure waves reaches to reservoir after 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes and 11 seconds and there is no water at all in reservoir. Last drop of water has entered in pipe. What these pressure waves will do?
Also, we should consider the situation if instead of lifting pipe, we have closed valve at end "B". Physics explain that there will be "hammer effect" on valve. Certainly there will be. I agrre with it. But after close of valves, water is still flowing from reservoir to end "B" for 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes and 11 seconds. Where this water will go? Will it get compressed all the time? Or burst the pipe of ANY thickness?
Let us use "SIPHON" like pipe system in our experiment. End "A" is immersed in water in Ocean. 3 million Km long spiral strucure of pipe is 30 meter above ground. End "B" is BELOW 100 meter of sea level. 130 meter long vertical pipe is hanging at end "B" i.e. 30 meter above ground and 100 meter below ground. Whole pipe is full of water. Now let us open valve at end "B". Water will begin to flow out of end "B". When there is uniform, steady flow of water in this structure, let us sever, cut off 130 meter pipe segment at end "B". As this information will take 23 days, 10 hours, 18 minutes and 11 seconds to reach to ocean, water will continue to flow from ocean to end "B". So during this time water will continue to flow 30 meter above the ground. We can arrange to store this water in dam and later on use it.
We are concentrating on speed of sound in water only because physics tells us that information transfer takes place in water with this speed. In fact even if we assume that information transfer in water takes place with speed of light, it does not affect our experiment in any way. Only thing we will have to do is to increase length of pipe for better understanding. For better understanding, we can use rigid pipe of 1 meter diameter of 3 million Km(or more) length and at end "B", we can attach our 100 meter vertical hose pipe of 3 centimeter radius. Equation of continuity will do its work.
Reader might argue that water will not flow at all in such long pipe, but he should concentrate that in other words he is saying that water in pipe will turn in moleculear structure like that of metal. And reader will have to explain, how can this happen. Water flows because of pressure difference and because it can not withstand shearing stress. How can water in pipe at end"B", when it is on ground, in Action I, sustain shearing stress and molecules of water just stick with each other and pipe? It must flow. If reader has difficulty, I request reader to consider Three Gorges Dam (China) in my experiment.
It is no denying fact that it is almost impossible for us to arrange such 3 million Km long pipe to verify the truthness of this experiment. But certainly we can do test experiment with just 15 Km long pipe. In fact, I think, in any city, underground water supply network is longer than 15 Km. If "information" regarding change in water pressure really travels with speed of sound in water, then it will take at least 10 seconds to reach state of equilibrium. We can lift other end "B" to just few centimeter above water level in reservoir. During these 10 seconds water will continue to flow "above" water level in reservoir(according to physics). If this happens, then certainly it is against law of conservation of energy and gravity.
Most important question is that has ever scientists "seen" with their own eyes that in test experiment like I have given(15 Km long pipe), water flows out of end "B" at heigher level or not? If scientists believe that this "information" travel with speed of sound in water i.e. 1482 m/s, then we can use only 15 Km long pipe to see it with "our own eyes". Has ever scientists performed such experiment? I agree, neither I have performed such experiment. But doesn't it lead to raise suspicion about current knowledge of physics regarding information transfer if no one on planet earth has experimentally verified it? And we know, certainly we will not need million dollar budget to buy 15 km long pipe and perform such test experiment.
In fact, we don't need to buy any pipe at all. There are lot of pipe lines on earth which run over hundreds of Km, from one city to other city, from dam to city. We need to just attach hose pipe to such pipe in which water is flowing and lift this hose above water level in reservoir or dam. If such experiment is already done somewhere, I request reader to inform me on my e-mail address. If such experiment is not done at any time in history, then I wonder, how can we assume that information transfer in water take place with speed of sound.
We should come to the conclusion that when we lift pipe, the flow of water must stop at exactly same moment it reaches level of water in reservoir. Whatever may be length of pipe, it does not matter. Even if single drop of water flow above water level in reservoir without energy, law of conservation of energy collapse. If there is really speed limit for information transfer in this specific experiment, we can "use" it in this way to gain "free energy". But this does not happen. There is NOT any "free energy" in our universe. So information regarding pressure change of water at end points of system must travel at exactly same moment.
College - Bourgas,
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